Submissions should be made electronically through this website.
Please ensure that you consider the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript. Failure to do so may delay the processing of your submission.
All word limits include referencing and citation.
To ensure blind peer review, please only list the title and abstract on the submitted manuscript file.
The names of all authors, affiliations, contact details, biography (optional) and the corresponding author details must be completed online as part of the submission process.
Author names should include a forename and a surname. Forenames cannot include only initials.
The affiliation should ideally include ‘Department, Institution, City, Country’, however only the Institution and Country are mandatory.
Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract of no more than 150 words summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article. This must have the heading ‘Abstract’ and be easily identified from the start of the main text.
A list of up to six key words may be placed below the abstract (optional).
The Abstract and Keywords should also be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission.
The body of the submission should be structured in a logical and easy to follow manner. A clear introduction section should be given that allows non-specialists in the subject an understanding of the publication and a background of the issue(s) involved. Methods, results, discussion and conclusion sections may then follow to clearly detail the information and research being presented.
Up to three level headings may be present and must be clearly identifiable using different font sizes, bold or italics. We suggest using Headings 1, 2 and 3 in MS-Word’s ‘Style’ section.
Supplementary Files (optional)
Any supplementary/additional files that should link to the main publication must be listed, with a corresponding number, title and option description. Ideally the supplementary files are also cited in the main text.
e.g. Supplementary file 1: Appendix. Archaeological data related to the study.
Note: additional files will not be typeset so must be provided in their final form. They will be assigned a DOI and linked to from the publication.
Examples of supplemental file formats:
Any acknowledgements must be headed and in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but before the reference list. If applicable, please state the location of supporting data here.
Funding Information (optional)
Should the research have received a funding grant then the grant provider and grant number should be detailed.
If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. Guidelines for competing interests can be found here. If there are no competing interests to declare then the following statement should be present: The author(s) has/have no competing interests to declare.
Authors' contributions (optional)
A sentence or a short paragraph detailing the roles that each author held to contribute to the authorship of the submission.
All references cited within the submission must be listed at the end of the main text file.
For the submission title:
Capitalise all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinate conjunctions (i.e. as, because, although). Use lowercase for all articles, coordinate conjunctions and prepositions.
Headings within the main text:
First level headings in the text should follow the same rule as the main title.
For lower-level subheadings, only capitalise first letter and proper nouns.
Headings should preferably be under 150 characters.
Submissions must be made in English. Authors are welcome to use American or British spellings as long as they are used consistently throughout the whole of the submission.
When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used.
American or English grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently and match the spelling format (see above). However, you must use a serial comma.
The font used should be commonly available and in an easily readable size. This may be changed during the typesetting process.
Underlined text should be avoided whenever possible.
Bold or italicised text to emphasise a point are permitted, although should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise their efficiency.
Use bullet points to denote a list without hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used.
Lists should be used sparingly to maximise their impact.
Use single quotation marks except for quotes within another speech, in which case double quotation marks are used.
Quotations that are longer than three lines in length must be in an indented paragraph separate from the main text.
The standard, non-italicised font must be used for all quotes.
It must be clear from the text and/or citation where the quote is sourced. If quoting from material that is under copyright then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder.
If some of the original quote is being omitted then an ellipsis with a space on either side must be used to break the text.
Words added to the original quote text, to enhance clarity, must be placed within square brackets.
Acronyms & Abbreviations
With abbreviations, the crucial goal is to ensure that the reader – particularly one who may not be fully familiar with the topic or context being addressed – is able to follow along. Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.
A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance. Examples of these can be found here.
Abbreviations should usually be in capital letters without full stops.
Common examples from Latin origin do not follow this rule and should be lower case and can include full stops.
Use of footnotes/endnotes
Use endnotes rather than footnotes (we refer to these as ‘Notes’ in the online publication). These will appear at the end of the main text, before ‘References’.
All notes should be used only where crucial clarifying information needs to be conveyed.
Avoid using notes for purposes of referencing, with in-text citations used instead. If in-text citations cannot be used, a source can be cited as part of a note.
Please insert the endnote marker after the end punctuation.
Latin and Greek text
Foreign words, notably Latin and Greek, should be italicised, e.g. civitas (although those in common English usage need not be, e.g. villa).
Greek characters can be used but must be in a Unicode Greek font (preferably Orthos).
Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or have explanatory definition on their first usage.
Hyphenation, em and en dashes
There is no set rule on the use of hyphenation between words, as long as they are consistently used.
Em dashes should be used sparingly. If they are present, they should denote emphasis, change of thought or interruption to the main sentence and can replace commas, parentheses, colons or semicolons.
En dashes can be used to replace ‘to’ when indicating a range. No space should surround the dash.
For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Please use figures for numbers 10 or higher.
We are happy for authors to use either words or figures to represent large whole figures (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent throughout the text.
If the sentence includes a series of numbers then figures must be used in each instance. Note the space between the number and the unit of measurement.
If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table then the figure must be used.
If a sentence starts with a number it must be spelt, or the sentence should be re-written so that it no longer starts with the number.
Do not use a comma for a decimal place.
Numbers that are less than zero must have ‘0’ precede the decimal point.
Multiple dimensions should be cited as follows.
Dimension abbreviations should be used as follows.
First and second century are to be used instead of 1st or 2nd.
BC (Before Christ) and AD (Anno Domini) should be used.
Dates should be written as
Chronological periods should be capitalised (e.g. Roman, Late Antique, Late Iron Age).
Radiocarbon dates should be presented following 14C community endorsed guidelines (Millard 2014).
When a date is quoted, the following details must be provided.
For calibrated or modelled dates, please provide:
Specific monuments, buildings, groups of objects should be capitalised.
Excavation nomenclature should be lowercase:
Units of measurement
Symbols following a figure to denote a unit of measurement must be taken from the latest SI brochure. See http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/si_brochure_8_en.pdf for the full brochure.
Formulae must be proofed carefully by the author. Editors will not edit formulae. If special software has been used to create formulae, the way it is laid out is the way they will appear in the publication.
Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, the editor may ask to re-render or omit it.
All figures must be cited within the main text, in consecutive order using Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).
Each figure must have an accompanying descriptive main title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the figure image. A short additional figure legend is optional to offer a further description.
Figure titles and legends should be placed within the text document, either after the paragraph of their first citation, or as a list after the references.
The source of the image should be included, along with any relevant copyright information and a statement of authorisation (if needed).
If your figure file includes text then please present the font as Ariel, Helvetica, or Verdana. This will mean that it matches the typeset text.
The following figure terms should be used before the source.
“after” = potential redrafting, same information
“modified from” = minor-medium changes
“adapted from” = major changes
If no changes have been made, only the reference is needed.
If the figure is the authors own, (Source: Author) should be inserted.
Photos taken by the author must include the year that the photo was taken.
NOTE: All figures must be uploaded separately as supplementary files during the submission process, if possible in colour and at a resolution of at least 300dpi. Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS. For line drawings, please provide the original vector file (e.g. .ai, or .eps).
Tables must be created using a word processor's table function, not tabbed text.
Tables should be included in the manuscript. The final layout will place the tables as close to their first citation as possible.
All tables must be cited within the main text, numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.).
Each table must have an accompanying descriptive title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the table. A short additional table legend is optional to offer a further description of the table. The table title and legend should be placed underneath the table.
Tables should not include:
NOTE: If there are more columns than can fit on a single page, then the table will be placed horizontally on the page. If it still can't fit horizontally on a page, the table will be broken into two.
Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text so that it is clear that external material has been used.
If the author is already mentioned in the main text then the year should follow the name within parenthesis.
If the author name is not mentioned in the main text then the surname and year should be inserted, in parenthesis, after the relevant text. Multiple citations should be separated by semi-colon and follow chronological order.
If one or two authors are cited from the same citation then all should be listed. If three or more authors are part of the citation then ‘et al.’ should follow the first author name.
If citations are from the same author, then the author’s name does not need to be repeated. Years should be separated with a semi-colon
If citations are used from the same author and the same year, then a lowercase letter, starting from ‘a’, should be placed after the year.
If specific pages are being cited then the page number should follow the year, after a colon.
If a range of pages are being cited then both full page numbers should be typed out, separated by an en dash.
For publications authored and published by organisations, use the short form of the organisation’s name or its acronym in lieu of the full name.
Please do not include URLs in parenthetical citations, but rather cite the author or page title and include all details, including the URL, in the reference list.
For classical authors, the author, Latin title, and page range should be cited. A full stop should separate book, chapter, and line numbers. Multiple books should be listed in numerical order and separated with a semi-colon. Multiple chapters and/or lines within the same book should be separated with a comma. A range should be denoted with an en dash.
For subsequent citations of the same text, the abbreviated citation should be given following Hornblower, S. and Spawforth, A. 1996. The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
For citation of standard reference works in text, tables, and figures follow the abbreviations of the American Journal of Archaeology (https://www.ajaonline.org/submissions/standard-reference), with the addition of
The full bibliographic reference should still be supplied in the bibliography.
Note: Books with multiple editions should be cited by the year of publication of the edition used.
If in text abbreviations have been used (CIL, RIB etc), an abbreviations list should be located above the Reference List. Please list all abbreviations alphabetically, stating the abbreviation used, disambiguation, and bibliographic information following the format below. If multiple volumes of a large corpus has been cited (e.g. CIL), please place the volume numbers at the end of the reference.
RIB Roman Inscriptions in Britain - Haverfield, F. 1890. Roman Inscriptions in Britain. Exeter: William Pollard & Co.
RIC Roman Imperial Coinage - Mattingly, H. et al. 1923. The Roman Imperial Coinage. London.
CIL Corpus inscriptionum latinarum - Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1893 Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berlin. Volumes 1, 4, 10.
All citations must be listed at the end of the text file, in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames.
All reading materials should be included in ‘References’ – works which have not been cited within the main text, but which the author wishes to share with the reader, must be cited as additional information in endnotes explaining the relevance of the work. This will ensure that all works within the reference list are cited within the text.
NOTE: If multiple works by the same author are being listed, please re-type the author’s name out for each entry, rather than using a long dash.
NOTE: DOIs should be included for all reference entries, where possible.
NOTE: If a source has been accepted for publication but is not yet published, include this in the reference list as 'forthcoming' and have the in-text citation read '(Author, forthcoming)'. If a source has not been accepted for publication/is not publicly available, please do not include this in the reference list. Instead please cite this in the main text as '(Author, unpublished)'.
This journal uses the Harvard system – see below for examples of how to format:
Author, A.A. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Mattingly, D.J. 2011. Imperialism, Power, and Identity: Experiencing the Roman Empire. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Pitts, M. and Versluys, M.J. (eds) 2016. Globalisation and the Roman World: World History, Connectivity and Material Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Betts, E. (ed.) 2017. Senses of the Empire: Multisensory Approaches to Roman Culture. London: Routledge.
Baker, P. 2001. Medicine, culture and military identity. In: G. Davies, A. Gardner, and K. Lockyear. TRAC 2000: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, London 2000. Oxford: Oxbow Books: 48–68.
Davies, G., Gardner, A., and Lockyear, K. 2001. TRAC 2000: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, London 2000. Oxford: Oxbow Books
González Sánchez, S. and Guglielmi, A. 2017. Romans and Barbarians Beyond the Frontiers: Archaeology, Ideology and Identities in the North. TRAC Themes in Roman Archaeology 1. Oxford: Oxbow Boooks.
Author, A. Year. Title. Journal Name vol(issue): page. DOI
NOTE: Please include DOIs for all journal articles where possible.
NOTE: Roman should always be capitalised in article titles.
Author, A. Year. Title of chapter. In: Title of conference proceedings, location, date: page.
Lynch, M. 2003. Dialogue in an age of terror. In: The Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA on 18 August 2003: 4-7.
Author group. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher
World Health Organization 2010. The World Health Report – Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Author, A. Year. Title. Unpublished thesis (PhD), Institution.
Yudis, A. 2004. Failed responsibility of the media in the war on Iraq. Unpublished thesis (PhD), University of Manchester.
Author, A. Year. Title, date of publication. Available at URL [Last accessed date month year].
Pascual, Amb. C. 2005. Stabilization and Reconstruction: Building peace in a hostile environment. Prepared statement to Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 16 June 2005. Available at http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/crs/rls/rm/48644.htm [Last accessed 14 August 2012].
Author (Translated by A.A. Author year). English Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Cicero (Translated by D.R. Shackleton Bailey 1978). Letters to Atticus. London: Penguin Books.
Author, A. Year. Title. Newspaper, date of publication: page.
Tate, P. 2007. Illicit organ trade increasing. The Jordan Times, 6 June: 3.
Author, A. Year. Title. Newspaper, date of publication, [URL and last accessed date].
Patel, S.S. 2005. Climate; In a Marsh, Sifting the Past And Seeing the Future. The New York Times, 6 November [online access at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800EEDF173EF935A35752C1A9639C8B63 last accessed 28 April 2014].
Author, A. Year. Dataset Title. Data Repository, Version (where available). DOI:
Allen, M., Blick, N., Brindle, T., Evans, T., Fulford, M., Holbrook, N., Richards, J.D. and Smith, A. 2016. The Rural Settlement of Roman Britain: An Online Resource [data-set]. Archaeology Data Service. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5284/1030449NOTE: the names of authors of multiple-authored publications should be spelt out in full for 1-5 authors. For 6 authors or more, the first author should be followed by et al.