Author Guidelines


Article types | Structure | Language & text | Data & Symbols | Figures & Tables | References

Submissions should be made electronically through this website.

Please ensure that you consider the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript. Failure to do so may delay the processing of your submission.

Article types

  • Research articles must present unpublished original research and clearly describe the research context, theoretical basis, methodologies used, and conclusions drawn. These should make a substantial contribution to the overall understanding of the subject matter as well as add to general knowledge in the wider field. Research articles should be supported by relevant figures and tabulated data and be no more than 10,000 words in length, including the bibliography.
  • Editorials should introduce a volume of the journal. Editorials may also reflect or critique recent developments in the field of Roman archaeology or current controversies. Guest editors submitting a commentary piece should discuss the content with the editorial committee before submitting a manuscript. Editorials should be no longer than 3,000 words in length.
  • Book Reviews are 750–1000 words, reviewing books on all aspects of Roman archaeology with an emphasis on theory. Please get in touch if you have a particular book in mind to review for TRAJ.


All word limits include referencing and citation.


Title page

To ensure blind peer review, please only list the title and abstract on the submitted manuscript file.

The names of all authors, affiliations, contact details, biography (optional) and the corresponding author details must be completed online as part of the submission process.

Author names should include a forename and a surname. Forenames cannot include only initials.

  • J. Bloggs is not preferred. The full name, Joe Bloggs is required (this will enhance the 'findability' of your publication).

The affiliation should ideally include ‘Department, Institution, City, Country’, however only the Institution and Country are mandatory.


Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract of no more than 150 words summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article. This must have the heading ‘Abstract’ and be easily identified from the start of the main text.

A list of up to six keywords may be placed below the abstract (optional). Please capitalize all keywords.

The Abstract and Keywords should also be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission.

Main text

The body of the submission should be structured in a logical and easy to follow manner. A clear introduction section should be given that allows non-specialists in the subject an understanding of the publication and a background of the issue(s) involved. Methods, results, discussion and conclusion sections may then follow to clearly detail the information and research being presented.

Up to three level headings may be present and must be clearly identifiable using different font sizes, bold or italics. We suggest using Headings 1, 2 and 3 in MS-Word’s ‘Style’ section.

Supplementary Files (optional)

Any supplementary/additional files that should link to the main publication must be listed, with a corresponding number, title and option description. Ideally the supplementary files are also cited in the main text.

e.g. Supplementary file 1: Appendix. Archaeological data related to the study.

Note: additional files will not be typeset so must be provided in their final form. They will be assigned a DOI and linked to from the publication.

Examples of supplemental file formats:

  • Comma separated value files (.csv)
  • 3D models: 3D PDF
  • Microsoft formats: Excel (.xls, .xlsx), PowerPoint (.ppt, .pptx), Word (.doc, .docx)
  • Video/Animation formats: .avi, .mpg and .mpeg, .mov, .qt, .swf, .wmv
  • Vector graphics: .eps, .pdf

Acknowledgements (optional)

Any acknowledgements must be headed and in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but before the reference list. If applicable, please state the location of supporting data here.

Funding Information (optional)

Should the research have received a funding grant then the grant provider and grant number should be detailed.

Competing interests

If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. Guidelines for competing interests can be found here. If there are no competing interests to declare then the following statement should be present: The author(s) has/have no competing interests to declare.

Authors' contributions (optional)

A sentence or a short paragraph detailing the roles that each author held to contribute to the authorship of the submission.


All references cited within the submission must be listed at the end of the main text file.

Language & Text


For the submission title:

Capitalize all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinate conjunctions (i.e. as, because, although). Use lowercase for all articles, coordinate conjunctions and prepositions.

  • Slip-Sliding on a Yellow Brick Road: Stabilization Efforts in Afghanistan.

Headings within the main text:

First level headings in the text should follow the same rule as the main title.

For lower-level subheadings, only capitalize first letter and proper nouns.

Headings should preferably be under 150 characters.


Submissions must be made in English. Authors are welcome to use American or British spellings as long as they are used consistently throughout the whole of the submission, noting:

  • -ize is preferred to -ise

When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used.

  • World Health Organization, not World Health Organisation

English forms of place-names should be used where they exist:

  • Seville rather than Sevilla, Padua rather than Padova.

Always use Latin script:

  • Thasos rather than Θάσος


American or English grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently and match the spelling format (see above). However, do not use an Oxford comma unless needed for clarity.

  • red, white and blue


Use single quotation marks except for quotes within another speech, in which case double quotation marks are used.

Punctuation generally falls outside quotation marks, unless the quotation forms a complete sentence and is separated from the preceding passage by a punctuation mark.

If two or more points of the compass are used together, they should be hyphenated:

  • e.g., The provinces of the north-western empire.


The font used should be commonly available and in an easily readable size. This may be changed during the typesetting process.

Underlined text should be avoided whenever possible.

Bold or italicised text to emphasise a point are permitted, although should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise their efficiency.


Use bullet points to denote a list without hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used.

Lists should be used sparingly to maximise their impact.


Quotations that are longer than three lines in length must be in an indented paragraph separate from the main text.

The standard, non-italicized font must be used for all quotes.

It must be clear from the text and/or citation where the quote is sourced. If quoting from material that is under copyright then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder.

If some of the original quote is being omitted then an ellipsis with a space on either side must be used to break the text.

Words added to the original quote text, to enhance clarity, must be placed within square brackets.

Acronyms & Abbreviations

With abbreviations, the crucial goal is to ensure that the reader – particularly one who may not be fully familiar with the topic or context being addressed – is able to follow along. Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.

  • Research completed by the World Health Organization (WHO) shows …

A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance. Examples of these can be found here.

Abbreviations should usually be in capital letters without full stops.

  • USA, not U.S.A

Common examples from Latin origin do not follow this rule and should be lower case and can include full stops.

  • e.g., i.e., etc., c.

Use of footnotes/endnotes

Use endnotes rather than footnotes (we refer to these as ‘Notes’ in the online publication). These will appear at the end of the main text, before ‘References’.

All notes should be used only where crucial clarifying information needs to be conveyed.

Avoid using notes for purposes of referencing, with in-text citations used instead. If in-text citations cannot be used, a source can be cited as part of a note.

Please insert the endnote marker after the end punctuation.

We have a limit of 15 notes per article. If more are needed, please discuss with the editor. 

Latin and Greek text

Foreign words, notably Latin and Greek, should be italicised, e.g. civitas (although those in common English usage need not be, e.g. villa). Place names and legion names should not be italicised.

Greek characters can be used but must be in a Unicode Greek font (preferably Orthos).

Data & Symbols


Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or have explanatory definition on their first usage.

Hyphenation, em and en dashes

Please do not hyphenate between words unless it is strictly grammatically necessary.

Em dashes should be used sparingly. If they are present, they should denote emphasis, change of thought or interruption to the main sentence and can replace commas, parentheses, colons or semicolons.

  • The president’s niece — daughter of his younger brother — caused a media scandal when…

En dashes can be used to replace ‘to’ when indicating a range. No space should surround the dash.

  • 10–25 years
  • in volumes 3–5


For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Please use figures for numbers 10 or higher.

We are happy for authors to use either words or figures to represent large whole figures (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent throughout the text.

If the sentence includes a series of numbers then figures must be used in each instance. Note the space between the number and the unit of measurement.

  • Artefacts were found at depths of 5, 9, and 29 cm.

If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table then the figure must be used.

  • This study confirmed that 5% of…

If a sentence starts with a number it must be spelt, or the sentence should be re-written so that it no longer starts with the number.

  • Fifteen examples were found to exist…
  • The result showed that 15 examples existed…

Do not use a comma for a decimal place.

  • 2.43 NOT 2,43

Include a comma for all numbers above 999, excepting in-text citations.

  • 1,000 NOT 1000
  • CIL IV, 3880 NOT CIL IV, 3,880

Numbers that are less than zero must have ‘0’ precede the decimal point.

  • 0.24 NOT .24

Multiple dimensions should be cited as follows.

  • 1.2 x 1.7 m

Dimension abbreviations should be used as follows.

  • h., w., l., d., th., diam.

Chronological references

First and nineteenth century are to be used instead of 1st or 19th.

BC (Before Christ) and AD (Anno Domini) should be used.

Dates should be written as

  • c. 200-100 BC
  • AD 60/70–120
  • 1 January 1900 rather than January 1, 1900
  • Date ranges should be given in full: e.g. 1400–1475 and not 1400–75.

Decades should be referenced as follows.

  • 120s

Chronological periods should be capitalised (e.g. Roman, Late Antique, Late Iron Age).

Dating protocols

Radiocarbon dates should be presented following 14C community endorsed guidelines (Millard 2014).

When a date is quoted, the following details must be provided.

  • Conventional 14C age in 14C BP (e.g. 3457 BP±39BP)
  • Laboratory code (e.g. OxA-13287)
  • Sample material dated (e.g. charcoal, animal bone, seed, stating species where available)

For calibrated or modelled dates, please provide:

  • Software for calibration/modelling, including version number and calibration curve
  • Calibrated date ranges in BC or AD with ranges and associated probability
  • Millard, A.R. 2014 Conventions for reporting radiocarbon determinations. Radiocarbon 56(2): 1–5. DOI:

Archaeological terminology

Specific monuments, buildings, groups of objects should be capitalised.

  • Roman Forum
  • Hadrian's Wall
  • Snettisham Treasure

Excavation nomenclature should be lowercase:

  • well 8328
  • layer 45

Units of measurement

Symbols following a figure to denote a unit of measurement must be taken from the latest SI brochure. See for the full brochure.


Formulae must be proofed carefully by the author. Editors will not edit formulae. If special software has been used to create formulae, the way it is laid out is the way they will appear in the publication.

Figures & Tables


Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, the editor may ask to re-render or omit it.

All figures must be cited within the main text, in consecutive order using Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).

Each figure must have an accompanying descriptive main title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the figure image. A short additional figure legend is optional to offer a further description.

  • Figure 1: 1685 map of London.
  • Figure 1: 1685 map of London. Note the addition of St Paul’s Cathedral, absent from earlier maps.

Figure titles and legends should be placed within the text document, either after the paragraph of their first citation, or as a list after the references.

The source of the image should be included, along with any relevant copyright information and a statement of authorisation (if needed).

  • Figure 1: Firemen try to free workers buried under piles of concrete and metal girders (Photo: Claude-Michel Masson. Reproduced with permission of the photographer).
  • Figure 2: The distribution of sites known as oppida in LPRIA Britain (Millett 1990, Fig 6. Reproduced with permission).

If your figure file includes text then please present the font as Ariel, Helvetica, or Verdana. This will mean that it matches the typeset text.

The following figure terms should be used before the source.

“after” = potential redrafting, same information

“modified from” = minor-medium changes

“adapted from” = major changes

If no changes have been made, only the reference is needed.

If the figure is the authors own, (Source: Author) should be inserted.

Photos taken by the author must include the year that the photo was taken.

  • Figure 3: The Tomb of Rabirii on Via Appia (Author’s photo 2016).

NOTE: All figures must be uploaded separately as supplementary files during the submission process, if possible in colour and at a resolution of at least 300dpi. Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS. For line drawings, please provide the original vector file (e.g. .ai, or .eps).


Tables must be created using a word processor's table function, not tabbed text.

Tables should be included in the manuscript. The final layout will place the tables as close to their first citation as possible.

All tables must be cited within the main text, numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.).

Each table must have an accompanying descriptive title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the table. A short additional table legend is optional to offer a further description of the table. The table title and legend should be placed underneath the table.

Tables should not include:

  • Rotated text
  • Colour to denote meaning (it will not display the same on all devices)
  • Images
  • Vertical or diagonal lines
  • Multiple parts (e.g. ‘Table 1a’ and ‘Table 1b’). These should either be merged into one table, or separated into ‘Table 1’ and ‘Table 2’.

NOTE: If there are more columns than can fit on a single page, then the table will be placed horizontally on the page. If it still can't fit horizontally on a page, the table will be broken into two. 


In-text citations

Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text so that it is clear that external material has been used.

  • Do not use ibid or ff.

If the author is already mentioned in the main text then the year should follow the name within parenthesis.

  • Both Jones (2013) and Brown (2010) showed that …

If the author name is not mentioned in the main text then the surname and year should be inserted, in parenthesis, after the relevant text. Multiple citations should be separated by semi-colon and follow chronological order.

  • The statistics clearly show this to be untrue (Brown 2010; Jones 2013).

If one or two authors are cited from the same citation then all should be listed. If three or more authors are part of the citation then ‘et al.’ should follow the first author name.

  • (Jones and Brown 2008)
  • (Jones et al. 2008)

If citations are from the same author, then the author’s name does not need to be repeated. Years should be separated with a semi-colon

  • (Jones 2013; 2015)

If citations are used from the same author and the same year, then a lowercase letter, starting from ‘a’, should be placed after the year.

  • (Jones 2013a; Jones 2013b)

If specific pages are being cited then the page number should follow the year, after a colon.

  • (Brown 2004: 65; Jones 2013: 143)

If a range of pages are being cited then both full page numbers should be typed out, separated by an en dash.

  • (Jones 2013: 143–145)

For publications authored and published by organisations, use the short form of the organisation’s name or its acronym in lieu of the full name.

  • (ICRC 2000) NOT (International Committee of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2000)

Please do not include URLs in parenthetical citations, but rather cite the author or page title and include all details, including the URL, in the reference list.

For classical authors, the author, Latin title, and page range should be cited. A full stop should separate book, chapter, and line numbers. Multiple books should be listed in numerical order and separated with a semi-colon. Multiple chapters and/or lines within the same book should be separated with a comma. A range should be denoted with an en dash.

  • Cicero, Ad Atticum 2.31–3.24

For subsequent citations of the same text, the abbreviated citation should be given following The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 4th edition.

  • Cicero, Ad Att. 2.31–3.24

For citation of standard reference works in text, tables, and figures follow the abbreviations of the American Journal of Archaeology (, with the addition of

  • RIB – Roman Inscriptions of Britain

The full bibliographic reference should still be supplied in the bibliography.

Note: Books with multiple editions should be cited by the year of publication of the edition used.


If in text abbreviations have been used (CIL, RIB etc), an abbreviations list should be located above the Reference List. Please list all abbreviations alphabetically, stating the abbreviation used, disambiguation, and bibliographic information following the format below. If multiple volumes of a large corpus has been cited (e.g. CIL), please place the volume numbers at the end of the reference.

RIB       Roman Inscriptions in Britain - Haverfield, F. 1890. Roman Inscriptions in Britain. Exeter: William Pollard & Co.

RIC       Roman Imperial Coinage - Mattingly, H. et al. 1923. The Roman Imperial Coinage. London.

CIL       Corpus inscriptionum latinarum - Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1893 Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berlin. Volumes 1, 4, 10.


All citations must be listed at the end of the text file, in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames.

If ancient sources are referenced, please include them in list 'Ancient Sources' before the rest, 'Modern Sources'. 

All reading materials should be included in ‘References’ – works which have not been cited within the main text, but which the author wishes to share with the reader, must be cited as additional information in endnotes explaining the relevance of the work. This will ensure that all works within the reference list are cited within the text.

Please note:

  • The required bibliography style mandates the full inclusion of author first names. This is done with the intention of promoting increased inclusivity and diversity in authorship, and recognizing the contributions of all individuals to the field.
  • If multiple works by the same author are being listed, please re-type the author’s name out for each entry, rather than using a long dash.
  • DOIs should be included for all reference entries, where possible.
  • If a source has been accepted for publication but is not yet published, include this in the reference list as 'forthcoming' and have the in-text citation read '(Author, forthcoming)'. If a source has not been accepted for publication/is not publicly available, please do not include this in the reference list. Instead please cite this in the main text as '(Author, unpublished)'.
  • Please include DOIs for all journal articles where possible.
  • Roman should always be capitalised in article titles.
  • If multiple works by the same author are being listed, please re-type the author’s name out for each entry, rather than using a long dash.
  • Page ranges should be typed out in full.
  • Capitalization of non-english book titles should follow the rules of that language. German titles should capitalise nouns and proper-nouns. Titles in Romance languages should only capitalise proper nouns.
  • Non-UK publisher locations should be written in English, e.g. Rome not Roma.
  • When referencing book chapters, the full book title should be listed in full every time. If the book is cited separately, the reference can be condensed to the first author et al.
  • The names of authors of multiple-authored publications should be spelt out in full for 1–5 authors. For 6 authors or more, the first author should be followed by et al.
  • If a book is within a series of publications, please insert the series name and number after the book title.

Reference format

This journal uses the Harvard system – see below for examples of how to format:

  • Books:

Author, Name. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Mattingly, David J. 2011. Imperialism, Power, and Identity: Experiencing the Roman Empire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Pitts, Martin and Miguel John Versluys (eds). 2016. Globalisation and the Roman World: World History, Connectivity and Material Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Betts, Eleanor (ed.). 2017. Senses of the Empire: Multisensory Approaches to Roman Culture. London: Routledge.

Davies, Gwyn, Andrew Gardner and Kris Lockyear (eds). 2001. TRAC 2000: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, London 2000. Oxford: Oxbow Books

González Sánchez, Sergio and Alexandra Guglielmi (eds). 2017. Romans and Barbarians Beyond the Frontiers: Archaeology, Ideology and Identities in the North. TRAC Themes in Roman Archaeology 1. Oxford: Oxbow Boooks.

  • Chapter in an edited volume:

Baker, Patricia. 2001. Medicine, culture and military identity. In: Gwyn Davies, Andrew Gardner and Kris Lockyear (eds). TRAC 2000: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, London 2000: 48–68. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 

  • Journal articles:

Author, Name. Year. Title. Journal Name vol(issue): page. DOI

  • Revell, Louis. 2005. The Roman life course: a view from the inscriptions. European Journal of Archaeology 8(1): 43–63. DOI:
  • González-Ruibal, Alfredo, Almudena Hernando and Gustavo Politis. 2011. Ontology of the self and material culture: arrow-making among the Awá hunter–gatherers (Brazil). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30(1): 1–16. DOI:
  • Conference papers:

Author, Name. Year. Title of chapter. In: Title of conference proceedings, location, date: page.

Lynch, Michael. 2003. Dialogue in an age of terror. In: The Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA on 18 August 2003: 4–7.

  • Organisational publications/Grey literature:

Author group. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher

World Health Organization 2010. The World Health Report – Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

  • Theses and dissertations:

Author, Name. Year. Title. Unpublished thesis (PhD), Institution.

Yudis, Andrew. 2004. Failed responsibility of the media in the war on Iraq. Unpublished thesis (PhD), University of Manchester.

  • Webpages / PDFs:

Author, Name. Year. Title, date of publication. Available at: URL [Last accessed date month year].

Pascual, Amb. C. 2005. Stabilization and Reconstruction: Building peace in a hostile environment. Prepared statement to Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 16 June 2005. Available at: [Last accessed 14 August 2012].

  • Ancient Sources

Author (Translated by Author year). English Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Cicero (Translated by David Roy Shackleton Bailey 1978). Letters to Atticus. London: Penguin Books.

Aelian (Translated by Alwyn Faber Scholfield 1958). On Animals, Volume I: Books 1–5. Loeb Classical Library 446. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Newspaper articles [print]

Author, Name. Year. Title. Newspaper, date of publication: page.

Tate, Phil. 2007. Illicit organ trade increasing. The Jordan Times, 6 June: 3.

  • Newspaper articles [online]

Author, Name. Year. Title. Newspaper, date of publication. Available at: URL [Last accessed date month year].

Patel, Sarah S. 2005. Climate; In a Marsh, Sifting the Past And Seeing the Future. The New York Times, 6 November. Available at: [Last accessed 28 April 2014].

  • Datasets

Author, Name. Year. Dataset Title. Data Repository, Version (where available). DOI:

Allen, Martyn, Nathan Blick, Tom Brindle, Tim Evans, Michael Fulford, Neil Holbrook, Lisa Lodwick, Julian D. Richards and Alex Smith. 2018. The Rural Settlement of Roman Britain: An Online Resource [data-set]. Archaeology Data Service. DOI: